初中英语全程知识点总结及考点分析

文章发布:奇速英语 发布时间:2016-11-2 12:02:35      访问量:119

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初一年级(上)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. Sit down

2. on duty

3. in English

4. have a seat

5. at home

6. look like

7. look at

8. have a look

9. come on

10. at work

11. at school

12. put on

13. look after

14. get up

15. go shopping

II. 重要句型

1. help sb. do sth.

2. What about…?

3. Let?s do sth.

4. It?s time to do sth.

5. It?s time for …

6. What?s…? It is…/ It?s…

7. Where is…? It?s….

8. How old are you? I?m….

9. What class are you in? I?m in….

10. Welcome to….

11. What?s …plus…? It?s….

12. I think…

13. Who?s this? This is….

14. What can you see? I can see?.

15. There is (are) ….

16. What colour is it (are they)? It?s (They?re)…

17. Whose …is this? It?s….

18. What time is it? It?s….

III. 交际用语

1. Good morning, Miss/Mr….

2. Hello! Hi!

3. Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too.

4. How are you? I?m fine, thank you/thanks. And you?

5. See you. See you later.

6. Thank you! You?re welcome.

7. Goodbye! Bye!

8. What?s your name? My name is ….

9. Here you are. This way, please.

10. Who?s on duty today?

11. Let?s do.

12. Let me see.

IV. 重要语法

1. 动词be的用法;

2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;

3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;

4. 冠词的基本用法;

5. There be句型的用法。

【名师讲解】

1. in/on

在表示空间位置时,in表示在某个空间的范围以内,on表示在某一个物体的表面之上。例如:

There is a bird in the tree. 树上有只鸟。

There is a picture on the wall. 墙上有张图。

2. this/that/these/those

(1)this常常用来指在时间、地点上更接近讲话人的人和事,these是this的复数形式。that常常用来指在时间、地点上离讲话人更远一点的人和事,those时that的复数形式。例如:      You look in this box and I’ll look in that one over there.你看看这个盒子,我去看那边的那个盒子。

I want this car, not that car. 我想要这辆小汽车,不是那一辆。

Take these books to his room, please. 请把这些书拿到他房间去。

This is mine; that’s yours. 这个是我的,那个是你的。

These are apples; those are oranges. 这些是苹果,那些是橘子。

(2)在打电话的用语中,this常常指的是我,that常常指的是对方。例如:

This is Mary speaking. Who’s that? 我是玛丽。你是谁?

3. There be/ have

There be "有",其确切含意为"某处或某时存在某人或某物。"其结构是:There be + 某人或某物 + 表示地点或时间的状语。There be 后面的名词实际上是主语,be 动词的形式要和主语在数上保持一致,be动词后面的名词是单数或不可数名词时用is,名词是复数时用are。例如:

(1) There is a big bottle of coke on the table. 桌上有一大瓶子可乐。

(2) There is a doll in the box. 那个盒子里有个娃娃。

(3) There are many apples on the tree. 那树上有许多苹果。

总之,There be结构强调的是一种客观存在的"有"。have表示"拥有,占有,具有",即:某人有某物(sb. have / has sth.)。主语一般是名词或代词,与主语是所属关系。例如:

(4) I have two brothers and one sister.我有两个兄弟,一个姐姐。

(5) That house has four rooms.那所房子有四个房间。

4. look/ see/ watch

(1)look 表示“看、瞧”,着重指认真看,强调看的动作,表示有意识地注意看,但不一定看到,以提醒对方注意。,如:

Look! The children are playing computer games. 瞧!孩子们在玩电脑游戏。

Look! What’s that over there? 看!那边那个是什么?

单独使用是不及物动词,如强调看某人/物,其后接介词at,才能带宾语,如:

He’s looking at me。他正在看着我。

(2)see强调“看”的结果,着重的是look这个动作的结果,意思是“看到”,see是及物动词,后面能直接跟宾语。如:

What can you see in the picture? 你能在图上看到什么?

Look at the blackboard. What did you see on it?看黑板!你看到了什么?

(3)watch“观看,注视”,侧重于场面,表示全神贯注地观看、观察或注视某事务的活动,强调过程,常用于“看电视、看足球、看演出”等。如:

Yesterday we watched a football match on TV.昨天我们从电视上看了一场足球比赛。

4. put on/ / in

put on意为“穿上,戴上”。主要指“穿上”这一动作, 后面接表示服装、鞋帽的名词。  in 是介词,表示“穿着”强调状态。在句中可以做定语、标语和状语。如:

It’s cold outside, put on your coat. 外面冷,穿上你的外衣。

He puts on his hat and goes out.  他戴上帽子,走了出去。

The woman in a white blouse is John’s mother.穿白色衬衣的那个妇女是John的妈妈。

5. house/ home/family

house :“房子”,指居住的建筑物; Home: “家”,指一个人同家人共同经常居住的地方; Family:  “家庭“,“家庭成员”。例如:

Please come to my house this afternoon. 今天下午请到我家来。

He is not at home. 他不在家。

My family all get up early. 我们全家都起得很早。

6. fine, nice, good, well

四者都可用作形容词表示"好"之意,但前三者既可作表语又可作定语,而后者仅用作表语。主要区别在于:    (1) fine指物时表示的是质量上的"精细",形容人时表示的是"身体健康",也

可以用来指"天气晴朗"。例如:Your parents are very fine. 你父母身体很健康。That's a fine machine. 那是一台很好的机器。It's a fine day for a walk today. 今天是散步的好时候。

(2)nice主要侧重于人或物的外表,有"美好","漂亮"的意思,也可用于问候或赞扬别人。例如:Lucy looks nice. 露西看上去很漂亮。These coats are very nice. 那些裙子很好看。Nice to meet you. 见到你很高兴。It's very nice of you. 你真好。

(3)good形容人时指"品德好",形容物时指"质量好",是表示人或物各方面都好的普通用语。例如:Her son is a good student. 她儿子是一个好学生。The red car is very good. 那辆红色小汽车很好。

(4)well只可用来形容人的"身体好",但不能作定语,它也能用作副词作状语,多放在所修饰的动词之后。例如:I'm very well, thanks. 我身体很好,谢谢。My friends sing well. 我的朋友们歌唱得好。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 动词be的用法;

2. 人称代词和物主代词的用法;

3. 名词的单复数和所有格的用法;

4. 冠词的基本用法;

5. There be句型的用法。

6. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

7. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空、完成句子。

初一年级(下)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. a bottle of

2. a little

3. a lot (of)

4. all day

5. be from

6. be over

7. come back

8. come from

9. do one?s homework

10. do the shopping

11. get down

12. get home

13. get to

14. get up

15. go shopping

16. have a drink of

17. have a look

18. have breakfast

19. have lunch

20. have supper

21. listen to

22. not…at all

23. put…away

24. take off

25. throw it like that

26. would like

27. in the middle of the day

28. in the morning / afternoon/ evening

29. on a farm

30. in a factory

II. 重要句型

1. Let sb. do sth.

2. Could sb. do sth.?

3. would like sth.

4. would like to do sth.

5. What about something to eat?

6. How do you spell …?

7. May I borrow…?

III. 交际用语

1. —Thanks very much!

—You're welcome.

2. Put it/them away.

3. What's wrong?

4. I think so.

I don't think so.

5. I want to take some books to the classroom.

6. Give me a bottle of orange juice, please.

Please give it / them back tomorrow. OK.

9. What's your favourite sport?

10. Don't worry.

11.I?m (not) good at basketball.

12. Do you want a go?

13. That's right./ That?s all right./ All right.

14. Do you have a dictionary / any dictionaries?

Yes, I do. / No, I don?t.

15. We / They have some CDs.

We / They don?t have any CDs.

16. ---What day is it today / tomorrow?

---It?s Monday.

17. ---May I borrow your colour pens, please?

---Certainly. Here you are.

18. ---Where are you from?

---From Beijing.

19. What's your telephone number in New York?

20. ---Do you like hot dogs?

---Yes, I do. ( A little. / A lot. / Very much.)

---No, I don't. ( I don't like them at all.)

21. ---What does your mother like?

---She likes dumplings and vegetables very much.

22. ---When do you go to school every day?

---I go to school at 7:00 every day.

23. ---What time does he go to bed in the evening?

---He goes to bed at 10:00.

IV. 重要语法

1.人称代词的用法;

2. 祈使句;

3. 现在进行时的构成和用法;

4.动词have的用法;

5.一般现在时构成和用法;

6.可数名词和不可数名词的构成和用法

【名师讲解】

That's right./ That?s all right./ All right.

That’s right意为“对的”,表示赞同对方的意见、看法或行为,肯定对方的答案或判断。例如:

"I think we must help the old man.""我想我们应该帮助这位老人。""That's right."或 "You're right.""说得对"。

That’s all right.意为“不用谢”、“没关系”,用来回答对方的致谢或道歉。例如:

"Many thanks." "That's all right."

"Sorry. It's broken." "That's all right."

All right.意为“行了”、“可以”,表示同意对方的建议或要求。有时还可以表示“身体很好” "Please tell me about it." "请把此事告诉我。""All right.""好吧。"Is your mother all right?你妈身体好吗

2. make/do

这两个词都可以解释为“做”,但含义却不同,不能混用。make指做东西或制东西,do指做一件具体的事。

Can you make a paper boat for me? 你能为我做个纸船吗?

He’s doing his homework now.他正在做他的作业。

3. say/speak/talk/tell

say:是最口语化的最普通的一个词,意为“说出”、“说道”,着重所说的话。如:

“I want to go there by bus” , he said . 他说,“我要坐汽车到那里去?!?/p>

Please say it in English .请用英语说。

speak : “说话”,着重开口发声,不着重所说的内容,一般用作不及物动词 (即后面不能直接接宾语 ) 。如:

Can you speak about him? 你能不能说说他的情况?

I don’t like to speak like this. 我不喜欢这样说话。

speak 作及物动词解时,只能和某种语言等连用,表达在对话中恰当使用词汇的能力。如:  She speaks English well.她英语说得好。

talk : 与 speak 意义相近,也着重说话的动作,而不着重所说的话,因此,一般也只用作不及物动词, 不过,talk 暗示话是对某人说的,有较强的对话意味,着重指连续地和别人谈话。如:

I would like to talk to him about it . 我想跟他谈那件事。

Old women like to talk with children.老年妇女喜欢和孩子们交谈。

tell : “告诉”,除较少情况外,一般后面总接双宾语。如:

He’s telling me a story.他在给我讲故事。

tell a lie 撒谎

tell sb. to do sth. /tell sb. not to do sth.

Miss Zhao often tells us to study hard.

4. do cooking/ do the cooking

do cooking 作“做饭”解,属泛指。do the cooking 特指某一顿饭或某一家人的饭。cooking为动名词,不能用作复数,但前面可用 some, much修饰。从do some cooking可引出许多类似的短语:

do some washing 洗些衣服

do some shopping 买些东西

do some reading 读书

do some writing 写些东西

do some fishing 钓鱼

从以上短语可引申出另一类短语,不能用some, much或定冠词。

go shopping 去买东西

go fishing 去钓鱼

go boating 去划船

go swimming 去游泳

5. like doing sth./ like to do sth.

like doing sth. 与like to do sth. 意思相同,但用法有区别。前者强调一般性的爱好或者表示动作的习惯性和经常性;后来表示一次性和偶然性的动作。例如:

He likes playing football, but he doesn?t like to play football with Li Ming.

他喜欢踢足球,但是他不喜欢和李明踢。

6. other/ others/ the other/ anotherother表其余的,别的,  Have you any other questions?你还有其他问题吗?others 别的人,别的东西  In the room some people are American, the others are French.在屋子里一些人是

美国人,其他的是法国人。

the other表另一个(二者之中)one?,the other?

One of my two brothers studies English,  the other studies Chinese.

我两个哥哥中的一个学习英文,另一个学中文。

another表三者以上的另一个,另一些

There is room for another few books on the shelf.书架上还可以放点书。

7. in the tree/ on the tree

in the tree 与 on the tree.译成中文均为"在树上"但英语中有区别。in the tree表示某人、某事(不属于树本身生长出的别的东西)落在树上,表示树的枝、叶、花、果等长在树上时,要使用on the tree.如:

There are some apples on the tree. 那棵树上有些苹果。

There is a bird in the tree. 那棵树上有只鸟。

8. some/ any (1)some和 any既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。但有以下两点需要  注意。some常用于肯定句中,any常用于否定句和疑问句中。如:There is some water in the glass.Is there any water in the glass?There isn't any water in the glass.

(2)在说话者希望得到肯定答复的一般疑问句中,或在表示请求,邀请的疑问句中,我们依然用some。如:Would you like some tea?

9. tall/ high

(1)说人,动物,树木等有生命的东西,主要用tall,不用high,例如     a tall woman 一个高个子妇女    a tall horse 一个高大的马

(2)说一个不与地面接触的人和物的高时,要用high,而不用tall,比如人站在桌子上时,飞机飞上天时,例如: He is high up in the tree. 他高高地爬在树上。 The plane is so high in the

sky. 飞机在空中这么高。

(3)指建筑物、山时要tall或high都可以,不过high的程度比tall高。

(4)high可作副词,tall不能。

(5)tall的反义词为short, high的反义词为low.

10. can/ could

(1) can表示体力和脑力方面的能力,或根据客观条件能做某种动作的"能力

"。例如: Can you ride a bike? 你会骑自行车吗? What can I do for you? 要帮忙吗? Can you make a cake?你会做蛋糕吗?

(2) can用在否定句和疑问句中时有时表示说话人的"怀疑""猜测"或不肯定。例如:Where can he be?他会在什么地方呢?Can the news be true?这个消息会是真的吗?It surely can't be six o'clock already?不可能已经六点钟了吧?You can't be hungry so soon,Tom,you've just had lunch.汤姆,你不可能饿得这么快,你刚吃过午饭。What can he mean?他会是什么意思? 在日?;峄爸?,can可代替may表示"允许",may比较正式。例如:You can come in any time.你随时都可以来。--- Can I use your pen?我能用你的钢笔吗?--- Of course,you can.当然可以。You can have my seat,I'm going now.我要走了,你坐我的座位吧。

(3) couldcould 是 can的过去式,表示过去有过的能力和可能性(在否定和疑问句中)。例如:    The doctor said he could help him.(能力)医生说他能帮助他。    Lily could swim when she was four years old.(能力)    当丽丽四岁的时候她就会游泳。At that time we thought the story could be true.(可能性)那时我们以为所说的可能是真的。    could可代替can表示现在时间的动作,但语气较为婉转。例如:Could I speak to John,please?我能和约翰说话吗?    Could you?在口语中表示请求对方做事。例如:Could you wait half an hour?请你等半个小时好吗?Could you please ring again at six?六点钟请你再打电话好吗?

(4) can的形式只有现在式can和过去式could两种形式。能表示一般现在和一般过去两种时态,有时也能表示将来。所有其他时态(包括将来时)须用be able to加动词不定式来表示。例如:   They have not been able to come to Beijing.   他们没有能到北京来。

11. look for/ find

look for 意为“寻找”,而find意为“找到,发现”,前者强调“找”这一动作,并不注重“找”的结果,而后者则强调“找”的结果。例如:

She can’t find her ruler. 她找不到她的尺子啦。

Tom is looking for his watch,but he can’t find it.汤姆正在寻找他的手表,但没能找到。

12. be sleeping/ be asleep

be sleeping 表示动作,意思是“正在睡觉”;be asleep 表示状态,意思是“睡着了”。如:  ---What are the children doing in the room? 孩子们在房间里做什么?

---They are sleeping.他们正在睡觉。

The children are asleep now.现在孩子们睡着了。

13. often/ usually/sometimes

often表示"经常",sometimes表示"有时候",在表示发生频率上often要高于usually,usually要高于sometimes。这三个词表示的是经常性,一般性的动作或情况,常与一般现在时连用,常位于主要谓语动词的前面,其他谓语动词(be动词,情态动词和助动词)的后面,有时也可位于句尾。如果要加强语气,则放在句首。

We usually play basketball after school.我们通常放学后打篮球。Sometimes I go to bed early.有时,我睡觉很早。He often reads English in the morning.他经常在早晨读英语。

14. How much/ How many

how much常用来询问某一商品的价格,常见句式是How much is / are??

How much is the skirt?  这条裙子多少钱?

How much are the bananas?  这些香蕉多少钱?

how much后加不可数名词,表示数量,意为“多少“,how many后加可数名词的复数形式。

How much meat do you want?  你要多少肉呀?

How many students are there in your class?  你们班有多少人?

15. be good for/ be good to/ be good at

be good for 表示"对??有好处",而be bad for表示"对??有害";be good to表示"对??友好",而be bad to表示"对??不好";be good at表示"擅长,在??方面做得好",而be bad at表示"在??方面做得不好"。    Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes.做眼保健操对你的眼睛有好处。    Eating too much is bad for you health.吃的太多对你的身体有害。    Miss Li is good to all of us.李老师对我们所有的人都很友好。    The boss is bad to his workers.这个老板对他的工人不好。    Li Lei is good at drawing, but I'm bad at it.李雷擅长画画,但是我不擅长。

16. each/ every

each 和every都有"每一个"的意思,但含义和用法不相同。each从个体着眼,every从整体着眼。each 可用于两者或两者以上,every只用于三者或三者以上。    We each have a new book.   我们每人各有一本新书。   There are trees on each side of the street.   街的两旁有树。   He gets up early every morning.   每天早晨他都起得早。

each可以用作形容词、副词和代词;every只能用作形容词。Each of them has his own duty.他们各人有各人的义务。They each want to do something different.他们每个人都想做不同的事情。

17. 一般现在时/现在进行时

一般现在时表示经常性的或习惯性的动作或存在的状态,也表示说话者的能力,还有自然现象;而现在进行时表示正在进行或发生的动作(构成方式为am/is /are/+doing)。

I do my homework in the evening.

我在晚上做作业。

I'm doing my homework now.

我现在正在做作业。

现在进行时常与now, these days, at the moment 或Look, listen等词连用;而一般现在时常与often, always, sometimes, usually, every day, in the morning, on Mondays等连用。

We often clean the classroom after school.

我们经常放学后打扫教室。

Look! They are cleaning the classroom .

看!他们正在打扫教室呢。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1.动词一般现在时和现在进行时的用法,人称代词的用法,可数名词和不可数

名词的构成和用法。

2.本册书中常见的交际用语

3.本册书中一些重点的词组和短语

考试形式往往是单项填空、完形填空、短文改错和短文填空。

初二年级(上)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. on time

2. best wishes

3. give a talk

4. for example

5. short for

6. a waste of time

7. go on a field trip

8. go fishing

9. I agree

10. next week

11. the day after tomorrow

12. have a picnic

13. have some problems doing sth.

14. go the wrong way

15. hurry up

16. get together

17. in the open air

18. on Mid-Autumn Day

19. come over

20. have to

21. get home

22. agree with

23. in the country

24. in town

25. all the same

26. in front of

27. on the left/right side

28. next to

29. up and down

30. keep healthy

31. grow up

32. at the same time

33. the day before yesterday

35. last Saturday

36. half an hour ago

37. a moment ago

38. just now

39. by the way

40. all the time

41. at first

II. 重要句型

1. have fun doing sth.

2. Why don?t you…?

3. We?re going to do sth.

4. start with sth.

5. Why not…?

6. Are you going to…?

7. be friendly to sb.

8. You?d better do sth.

9. ask sb. for sth.

10. say goodbye to sb.

11. Good luck(with sb)!

III. 交际用语

1.Welcome backto school!

2.Excuse me. I?m sorry I?m late, because the traffic is bad.

3.It doesn?t matter.

4.Happy Teachers? Day !

5.That?s a good idea.

6.What are you going to do?

7.Where are we going ?

8.What are we going to do ?

9.I?m good at…

10.It?s not far from…

11. Are you free tomorrow evening?

12.Would you and Lily like to come over to my home for Mid-Autumn Festival?

13.I?m glad you can come.

14.Thanks for asking us.

15.How about another one?

16.May I have a taste?

17.Let me walk with you.

18.What do you have to do?

19.Do you live on a farm?

20.Which do you like better, the city or the country?

21.Which do you like best, dogs, cats or chickens?

22.Shall we go at ten? Good idea!

23.---Let?s make it half past one. ---OK.

24.---Why not come a little earlier? ---All right.

25.Excuse me. Where?s the nearest post office, please?

26.It?s over there on the right.

27.I?m sorry I don?t know.

28.You?d better…

29.Thank you all the same.

30.Which bus do I take?

31.Go along this road.

32.What day was it yesterday?

33.I?m sorry to hear that.

34.I hope you?re better now.

35.Why did you call me?

36.I called to tell…

IV. 重要语法

1.be going to的用法;

2.形容词的比较级、最高级;

3.形容词和副词的比较

4.一般过去时

【名师讲解】

1. on the street / in the street

表示“在街上”时,on the street 和 in the street 都可以,在美国多用on the street, 在英国多用in the street. 例如:

We have a house in the street. 我们在街上有座房子。

I met him on the street. 我在街上遇见了他。

2. would like / like

would like 和 like含义不同。like 意思是“喜欢”,“爱好”,而 would like 意思是“想要”。试比较:

I like beer.=I’m fond of beer.  我喜欢喝啤酒。

I’d like a glass of beer= I want a glass of beer. 我想要一杯啤酒。

Do you like going to the cinema?  你喜欢看电影吗?

Would you like to go to the cinema tonight?  你今晚想去看电影吗?

3. another / the other

(1)another 通常用于三个或三个以上或不确定数量中的任意一个人或 物体。 例如:  May I have another apple, please? 请在给我一个苹果好吗?

This coat is too small for me. Please show me another这件外套我穿太小,请再给我拿一件看看。

(2)the other 通常指两者中的另一个。例如:

He has two rulers. One is short. The other is long. 他有两把尺子,一把短的,另一把长的。 I have two brothers. One works in Xi’an . The other works in Beijing. 我有两个兄弟,一个在西安工作,另一个在北京工作。

4. have to /must

(1)have to和 must 都可以用来谈论义务,但用法略有不同。如果某人主观上觉得必须去做而又想去时,常用must。如果谈论某种来自“外界”的义务,常用have to。例如:  I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟。(自己想戒烟)

They have to work for the boss.

他们不得不为那个老板工作。(条件逼得他们去工作)

(2)have to 可用于多种时态,must 只能用于一般现在时。例如:

I’ll have to get up early tomorrow morning.明天早晨我必须早早起床。

We had to work long hours every day in order to get more money.

为了多挣钱,我们不得不每天长时间地工作。

(3)用于否定句时,mustn’t意思是“决不能”,“禁止”,而don’t have to意思是“不必”,相当于needn’t。例如:

You mustn’t be late again next time.下一次你决不能再迟到。

You don?t have to go there today. You can go there tomorrow.

你今天不必到那里去了。你可以明天去。

5. hear sb. or sth.doing sth. / herar sb. or sth. do sth.

hear sb. or sth.doing sth.意思是“听到某人或某物在做某事”,而hear sb. or sth. do sth.意思是“听到某人或某物做过某事”。试比较:

I hear him singing an English song.听见他在唱英歌曲。

I heard him sing an English song.我听见他唱一首英文歌。

类似hear 这种用法的还有see, watch, listen, feel等感官动词。

6. any /some

any和some 都可以同不可数名词和可数名词的复数形式连用,但some一般用在肯定句中;any用在疑问句和否定句中。试比较:

I want some money. 我想要点钱。

Have you any money? 你有钱吗?

I don’t have any money. 我一点钱也没有。

some 有时也用于疑问句,表示说话人期待一个肯定回答或鼓励人家说“是”。例如:  Would you like some more beer?请你再来点啤酒好吗?

Could I have some rice, please?请给我来点米饭好吗?

7. hear /listen to

listen to 和hear 都有“听”的意思,但含义有所不同。Listen to强调“听”的动作,hear 强调“听”的结果。例如:

Listen to me ,please! I’m going to tell you a story. 请听我说!我给你们讲个故事。      Listen! Can you hear someone crying in the next room? 听!你能听见有人在隔壁房间里哭吗?

I listened, but heard nothing.我听了听,但什么也听不见。

hear 后面如果接宾语从句,常常表示“听说”。例如:

I hear some foreign students will visit our school.我听说一些外国学生将要访问我们学校。

I hear there is going to be a film in our school this evening.我听说今晚我们学校要演一场电影。

8. Let?s… /Let us…

Let’s? 和Let us? 都表示“让我们??”, 如果us 包括听话人在内,其含义相同,附带问句用shall we. 如果us 不包括听话人在内,其含义不同,Let us?的附带问句要用will you。例如:

Let’s go shopping, shall we? 我们去购物好吗?

9. take/ bring/ carry /get

这四个动词都有“拿”和“带”的意思,但含义有所不同。take意为“带走”,“拿走”,bring意为“带来”,“拿来”, get表示“到别的地方把某人或某物带来或拿来”,carry不强调方向,带有负重的意思。试比较:

My parents often take me there on holidays.我父母常常带我到那里去度假。

I’m going to take you to Beijing.我准备带你去北京。

Bring me a cup of tea, please.请给我端杯茶来。

I’ll bring the book to you tomorrow.明天我把那本书给你带来。

The waiter carried the me to the table服务员把肉送到桌上。

The monkey carried the bag on her back.猴子把那个包背在背上。

She went back to get her handbag.他折回去拿他的手提包。

Let me get the doctor.让我去请医生吧。

10. far away /faraway

(1)far away是一个副词短语,意思是“很远”。例如:

Some are far away. Some are nearer.有些离得很远,有些离得近一些的。

The village is far away from here.那个村子离这儿很远。

(2)faraway是一个形容词,意思是“遥远的”,可以在句中作定语。例如:

He lives in faraway mountain village.他住在一个遥远的小山村。

11. find / look for

find和look for 都有“找”的意思,但含义不同。find 强调“找”的结果,而look for 强调“找”的过程。请看下列例句:

He is looking for his bike.他在找他的自行车。

I’m looking for my watch, but can’t find it.我在找我的手表,但是找不到。

I hope you will soon find your lost ring.希望你尽快找到丢失的戒指。

另外,find还有“发现”;“感到”等意思。例如:

I found a wallet in the desk.我在课桌里发现了一个钱包。

I find this book very interesting.我觉得这本书很有意思。

12. in front of /in the front of

In front of 表示在某物的前面,不在某物的范围内。In the front of 表示在某物的前部,在某物的范围内。试比较:

My seat is in front of Mary’s.我的座位在玛丽座位的前面。

He is sitting in the front of the car with the driver.他和司机坐在小车的前部。

【考点扫描】

1. be going to的用法;

2. 形容词的比较级、最高级;

3. 形容词和副词的比较

4. 一般过去时

5. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

6. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

初二年级(中)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. give a concert

2. fall down

3. go on

4. at the end of

5. go back

6. in ahurry

7. write down

8. come out

9. all the year round

10. later on

11. at times

12. ring sb. up

13. Happy New Year!

14. have a party

15. hold on

16. hear from

17. be ready

18. at the moment

19. take out

20.the same as

21. turn over

22. get-together

23. put on

24. take a seat

25. wait for

26. get lost

27. just then

28. first of all

29. go wrong

30. make a noise

31. get on

32. get off

33. stand in line

34. at the head of

35. laugh at

36. throw about

37. in fact

38. at midnight

39. enjoy oneself

40. have a headache

41. have a cough

42. fall asleep

43. again and again

44. look over

45. take exercise

II. 重要句型

1. be good for sth.

2. I think …

3. I hope…

4. I love…

5. I don?t like…

6. I?m sure…

7. forget to do sth.

8. take a message for sb.

9. give sb. the message

10. help yourself to sth.

11. be famous for sth.

12. on one?s way to…

13. make one?s way to…

14. quarrel with sb.

15. agree with sb.

16. stop sb. from doing sth.

III. 交际用语

1.What?s the weather like today?

2.It?s cold, but quite suuny.

3.How cold it is today!

4.Yes, but it?ll be warmer later on.

5.Shall we make a snowman?

6.Ok. Come on!

7.Happy New Year!

8.May I speak to Ann, please??

9.Hold on, please.

10.Thanks a lot for inviting me to your party.

11.Ok. But I?m afraid I may be a little late.

12.Can I take a message for you?

13.That?s OK. It doesn?t matter.

14.I?m very sorry, but I can?t come.

15.I?m sorry to hear that.

16.Happy birthday!

17.Would you like ...? Would you like to ...?

18.Do you think ...? Yes, I think so. / No, I don't think so.

19.Do you agree? Yes, I agree. / No, don't really agree. I really can't agree.

20.There are a few / a lot of ... / on it.

21.So do we.

22.I'm happy you like it.

23.Which is the way to ..., please? 24.Turn right/left at the ... crossing. 25.Go on until you reach ...26.How can I get to ...? Go down/up/along this road.27.What's the matter?28.It'll take you half an hour to ... 29.We'd better catch a bus. 30.It may be in ... Ah, so it is

31.You must be more careful!32.You mustn't cross the road now.33.If you want to cross a street, you must wait for the green light.34.Please stand in line.35.You must wait for your turn.36.If you don't go soon, you'll be late.37.I don't feel very well.38.My head hurts.39.You mustn't eat anything until you see the doctor.

40.What's the trouble?41.What's the matter with…?42.She didn't feel like eating anything.43.Nothing serious.44.Have/get a pain in…45.No problem.46.Take this medicine three times a day.

IV. 重要语法

1. 一般过去时;

2. 反意疑问句的用法;

3. 一般将来时;

4. 感叹句;

5. 简单句的五种基本句型;

6. 情态动词can, may和must, have to的用法;

7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句。

【名师讲解】

1. above/ over/ on

这三个介词都表示“在??之上”,但含义不同。on指在某物的表面上,和某物接触;above指在某物的上方,不和某物接触,但也不一定在某物的正上方;over指在某物的正上方,不和某物接触。试比较:

There is a book on the desk.课桌上有一本书。

I raise my right hand above my head. 我把右手高举过头。

There is a stone bridge over the river. 河面上有座石桥。

2. forget to do sth./forget doing sth.

forget to do sth.意思是“忘记做某事”,实际上还没做;forget doing sth,意思是“忘记做过某

事”,实际上已经做过了。试比较:

I forgot to tell him the news.我忘记告诉他这条消息了。

I forgot telling him the news.我已经把这条消息告诉他了,我却忘了。

类似的词还有:remember, regret等。

3. hope/wish

hope和wish 在汉语中都有“希望”的意思,但其含义和用法有所不同。主要区别如下:

(1)wish可以用来表示不可实现的愿望;hope只能用来表示可能实现的愿望。例如:  I wish I were 20 years younger.我但愿自己能年轻二十岁。

I hope you’ll be better soon. 我希望你能很快好起来。

I wish the weather wasn’t so cold. 但愿天气不这麽冷。

I hope he will come, too. 我希望他也能来。

(2)wish可以接sb. to do sth. 的结构,而hope不可以。例如:

Do you wish me to come back later?  你是否希望我再来?

4. be sure to do sth./ be sure of/about sb. or sth.

(1)be sure to do sth.可以用来表示说话人给对方提出要求,意思是“务必”,也可以用来表示说话人做出的推断,意思是“一定”,“肯定”。例如:

Be sure to lock the door when you leave.你离开时务必把门锁好。

It’s a good film. You are sure to enjoy it.这是一部好电影,你肯定会喜欢的。

(2)be sure of/about sb.or sth.  可用来表示“某人对某事有把握”。例如:

I’m sure of his success.我相信他会成功。

I think it was three years ago, but I’m not sure about it.我想那是三年前的事情,但我没有把握。

5. hear from/hear of

hear意思是“听到”,从哪里听到要用from来表示。例如:

I?ve heard from Xiao Wu that we?ll start out military training tomorrow.

我听小吴说,我们明天开始军训。

Listen to the tape and write out what you hear from Han Mei.

听录音,并写出你从韩梅那里听到的内容。

hear from还有一个意思是“收到某人的来信”(=receive a letter from sb.)。例如:  I heard from my pen friend in the U.S.A. last month.

上个月我受到了美国笔友的来信。

I heard from her last week. 我上周接到了她的来信。

hear of和和hear from含义不同。hear of 意思是“听说”,“得知”(某事或某人的存在),常用在疑问句和否定句里。例如:

Who is he? I’ve never heard of him.他是谁?我从来没有听说过他。

I never heard of such a thing! 这样的事我从来没有听说过。

6. It?s a pleasure./With pleasure.

It’s a pleasure这句话常用作别人向你表示致谢时的答语,意思是“那是我乐意做的”。例如:

---Thank you for helping me. 谢谢你地帮助。

---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。

---Thanks a lot. Bye.非常感谢。 再见。

---It’s a pleasure. 那是我乐意做的。再见。

类似的话还有 “Not at all.” “You are welcome.” “That’s all right.”

With pleasure也用作客气的答语,主要用在别人要你做某事,而你又非常愿意去做的

场合。例如:

---Will you please pass me the newspaper, please?

请你把报纸递给我好吗?

---With pleasure.

当然可以。

7. seem/look

(1)二者都可以作“看起来”讲,但seem暗示凭借一些迹象作出的有根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实;look着重强调由视觉得出的印象。两者都可跟(to be)+形容词和as if从句。如:

He seems / looks (to be) very happy today. 他今天看起来很高兴。It looks (seems) as if it it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。

(2)但下列情况中只用seem不用look:

1)后跟不定式to do时。如:He seems to know the answer. 他似乎知道答案。

2)在It seems that ...结构中。如:It seems that he is happier now than yesterday.他像比昨天高兴些了。

8. be ready to do/be ready for/ get ready to do/get ready for(1)be ready to do和be ready for?表示“已作好?的准备”,强调状态

(2)get ready to do和get ready for?表示“为?做准备”,强调行为。如:

I'm ready to do anything you want me to do. 我愿意/随时准备做一切做你要我做的事。 I'm ready for any questions you may ask.我愿意/随时准备回答你可能问的问题。

He's getting ready to leave for Tokyo.他正准备动身去东京。

Let's get ready for the hard moment.我们为这一艰难时刻作好准备吧。

(3)be ready to do 通??衫斫狻袄钟谧瞿呈隆?,即思想上总是有做某事的准备。be not ready to do表示

“不轻易做某事”。如:

He's usually not ready to listen to others.他通常不轻易听从别人。

9. at table/at the table

at table在吃饭,at the table在桌子旁边。例如:

The Greens are at table. 格林一家人在吃饭。Mr. Black is sitting at the table and reading a book.布莱克先生坐在桌旁读书。

10. reach, arrive/get to    三者都有"到达"之意。reach是及物动词,后直接加名词,get和arrive是不及物动词,不能直接加名词,须借助于介词。get to后加名词地点,若跟副词地点时,to去掉;arrive at +小地方,arrive in+大地方。如:  Lucy got to the zoo before 8 o'clock. 露西8点前到了动物园。  When did your parents arrive in Shanghai? 你父母何时到上海的?  It was late when I got home. 我到家时天色已晚。

11. sick/ill    二者都是形容词。当“生病的,患病“之意时,ill只作表语,不作定语;而sick既可作表语也可作定语。sick有"呕吐,恶心"的意思,只能作表语,而ill无此意。如:   Li Lei was ill last week. (只作表语)李磊上周生病了。   He's a sick man. (作定语)他是病人。不能说成:He's an ill man.   My grandfather was sick for a month last year. (作表语)我祖父去年病了一个

月。

12. in time/on time  in time是"及时"的意思,on time是"准时,按时"。如:I didn't get to the bus stop in time. 我没有及时赶上汽车。We'll finish our job on time. 我们要按时完成任务。

13. may be/maybe    It may be in your inside pocket. = Maybe it is in your inside pocket. 也许

在你里边的口袋里。第一句中may be是情态动词+be 动词构成的谓语部分,意思是"也许是","可能是";第二句中的maybe是副词,意思是"可能",常位于句首,不能位于句中,相当于另一副词perhaps。再如:    Maybe you put it in that bag.也许你放在了那只包里。(不能说You maybe put it

in that bag.)It may be a hat.那可能是顶帽子。(不能说It maybe a hat. 或It maybe is a hat.)

14. noise/ voice/ sound    noise 指嘈杂声,噪音大的吵杂声。voice是指说话的声音,嗓音,嗓子。sound是指耳朵能够听到的声音、闹声等。它是表示声音之意的最普通的字。有时还用作科学上的声音。例如:    Don't make so much noise! 别那么大声喧哗!    I didn't recognize John's voice on the telephone. 在电话里我听不出约翰的声

音。He spoke in a low voice. 他低声说话。We heard a strange sound. 我们听到了一种奇怪的声音。Sound travels fast, but light travels faster. 声音传得快,但是光传得更快。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 一般过去时;

2. 反意疑问句的用法;

3. 一般将来时;

4. 感叹句;

5. 简单句的五种基本句型;

6. 情态动词can, may和must, have to的用法;

7. 时间状语从句和条件状语从句;

8. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

9. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型天空、短文填空和完成句子。

初二英语(下)

【知识梳理】

I. 重点短语

1. on time

2. out of

3. all by oneself

4. lots of

5. no longer

6. get back

7. sooner or later

8. run away

9. eat up

10. take care of

11. turn off

12. turn on

13. after a while

14. make faces

15. teach oneself 16. fall off

17. play the piano

18. knock at

19. to one's surprise 20. look up

21. enjoy oneself 22. help yourself

23. tell a story / stories

24. leave....behind ……

25. come along 26. hold a sports meeting 27. be neck and neck

28. as ... as

29. not so / as ... as

30. do one's best

31. take part in

32. a moment late

33. Bad luck!

34. fall behind

35. high jump

36. long jump

37. relay race

38. well done!

39. take off

40. as usual

41. a pair of

42. at once

43. hurry off

44. come to oneself

45. after a while

46. knock on

47. take care of

48. at the moment

49. set off

50. here and there

51. on watch

52. look out

53. take one?s place

II. 重要句型

1. We?d better not do sth.

2. leave one. oneself

3. find one?s way to a place

4. stand on one?s head

5. make sb. Happy

6. catch up with sb.

7. pass on sth. to somebody

8. spend time doing sth.

9. go on doing sth.

10. get on well with sb.

11. be angry with sb.

12. be fed up with sth.

13. not…until…

14. make room for sb.

III. 交际用语

1. We?re all by ourselves.

2. I fell a little afraid.

3. Don?t be afraid.

4. Help!

5. Can?t you hear anything?

6. I can?t hear anything / anybody there.

7. Maybe it?s a tiger.

8. Let?s get it back before they eat the food.

9. Did she learn all by herself?

10. Could she swim when she was …years old?

11. She didn?t hurt herself.

12. He couldn?t buy himself many nice things.

13. Did he enjoy himself?

14. Help yourselves.

15. Bad luck!

16. Come on!

17. Well done! Congratulations (to…)!

18. It must be very interesting.

19. I don?t think you?ll like it.

20. It seems to be an interesting book.

21. I?m sure (that)… I?m not sure if… I?m not sure what to…

22. I hope so.

23. What was he/she drawing when…?

24. I?m sorry to trouble you.

25. Would you please…?

26. What were you doing at ten o?clock yesterday morning?

27. You look tired today.

28. You?d better go to bed early tonight, if you can.

29. How kind!

30. Let?s move the bag, or it may cause an accident.

31. It?s really nice of you.

32. Don?t mention it.

33. Don?t crowd around him.

IV. 重要语法

1. 不定代词/副词的运用;

2. 反身代词的用法;

3. 并列句;

4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;

5. 冠词的用法;

6. 动词的过去进行时;

【名师讲解】

1. bring/take

Bring表示“带来、拿来”,指从别处朝说话人所在或将在的地方“带来、拿来”。而take则表示“拿去、带走”,它表示的方向与bring相反,指从说话人所在地“拿走、带走”。如:  Bring me the book, please. 把那本书给我拿来。

Take some food to the old man. 给那位老人带去些食物。

2. somebody/ anybody/nobody

一般说来,somebody用于定句,anybody用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句。例如:   Somebody came to see you when you were out. 你出来时有人来见你。

Does anybody live on this island? 有人在这岛上住吗?

I didn't see anybody there. 我在那儿谁也没看见。

Don't let anybody in. I'm too busy to see anybody. 别让任何人进来。我太忙,谁也不想见。   There is nobody in the room. 房间里没人。

Nobody told me that you were ill, so I didn't know about it . 谁也没告诉我你病了。所以我不知道。

3. listen, listen to, hear

这三个词意思都是“听”,但是它们的用法不完全相同。它们的区别在于:

(1)listen 只用于不及物动词,后面接人或人物做宾语,着重于“倾听”,指的是有意识的动作,至于是否听到,并非强调的重点。如:

Listen! Someone is singing in the classroom. 听!有人在教室唱歌。

(2)listen to 为listen的及物形式,后面一定要接人或物做宾语,这里的to是介词。如:  Do you like listening to light music?你喜欢听轻音乐吗?

(3)hear 可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,意思是“听到、听见”,指用耳朵听到了某个声音,表示无意识的动作,着重于听的能力和结果。如:

We hear with our ears.我们用耳朵听。

She listens but hears nothing.她听了听,但是什么也没有听见。

4. many/ much/ a few/ a little/ few/ little(1)many修饰可数名词,much修饰不可数名词;都表示许多。例如:  He has many books.他有许多书。  He drank much milk.他喝了许多牛奶。

(2)a few和a little都表示"有一点儿",侧重于肯定,相当于"some",但a few修

饰可数名词,a little修饰不可数名词,例如:He has a few friends in London.他在伦敦有一些朋友。Would you like some coffee? Yes, just a little.喝点咖啡好吗?好的,只要一点。

(3)few和little表示"几乎没有",侧重否定。few后接可数名词,little后接不可数名词。例如:He is a strange man. He has few words.他是个怪人,他几乎不说什么话。Hurry up, there is little time left.赶快,没什么时间了。

5. either/ neither/ both

either可作形容词,一般指"两者中的任何一个"。有时也可表示"两个都??"的意思,后跟名词的单数形式;neither: 指两者中没有一个,全否定;both: 指两者都,肯定。句中可作主语、宾语和定语,both后面应跟名词的复数形式。如:  Neither of the films is good.两部电影都不好。(没有一部是好的)  Either of the films is good. 两部电影都不错。(谓语动词用单数)  Both the teachers often answer the questions.这两个老师都常常解答问题。

6. take part in/join

take part in参加某种活动; join参加,加入某一政党或组织。例如:

Can you take part in my party.你能来参加我的派对吗?

We often take part in many school activities.我们经常参加学校里的一些活动。

He joined the party in 1963. 他1963年入的党。

My little brother joined the army last year. 我小弟去年参的军。

7. quite/ rather/ very

(1)quite 表示程度“很,十分,完全地”,“相当”。如:

She is quite right.她对极了。

That's not quite what I want . 那并不完全是我所要的。

(2)rather 表示程度上的“相当”,比预想地程度要大,通常用在不喜欢的情况下。如:It's rather cold today.今天的天气相当冷。

(3)very表示程度“很,甚,极其,非?!?,用于修饰形容词或副词,既可用在喜欢的情况下,也可用于不喜欢的情况下。应注意“a very +形容词+可数名词的单数”结构中,"a"应置于"very"之前,该结构相当“quite a/an +形容词+名词”的结构。如:

Two months is quite a long time. / a very long time. 两个月是一段很长的时间。

It's a very nice day / quite a nice day. 今天天气很好。

【考点扫描】

中考考点在本单元主要集中在:

1. 不定代词/副词的运用;

2. 反身代词的用法;

3. 并列句;

4. 形容词和副词的比较等级;

5. 冠词的用法;

6. 动词的过去进行时;

7. 本单元学过的词汇、短语和句型;

8. 本单元学过的日常交际用语。

考试形式可以是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。

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